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Mahomet-Seymour Schools

Curriculum

Science - Chemistry I

 

Introduction to Lab and Matter

 

The learner will be able to identify and state the use of various types of laboratory equipment.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to set up for a laboratory experiment following proper technique and safety rules.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to define chemistry and identify some applications of chemistry in everyday life.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to describe and use the scientific method.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to define energy and list some types of energy and energy transformation.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to distinguish between physical and chemical properties of matter.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to classify changes in matter as physical or chemical and give reasons for their choices.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to distinguish between endothermic and exothermic chemical reactions.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to distinguish between homogeneous and heterogeneous matter.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to distinguish between elements, compounds, and mixtures.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to distinguish between symbols for elements and formulas for compounds and use the quantitative meaning of those representations using the law of definite composition.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to demonstrate how to separate the components of a mixture.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to give examples and recognize examples of the Law of Conservation of Matter and Energy.

 

  

 

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Measurement

 

The learner will be able to name and use SI and other units of length, mass, time, volume and density.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to determine the density of an object experimentally.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to define heat and temperature and explain the difference between them with examples.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to perform specific heat and density calculations from given date as well as data gathered experimentally.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to gather experimental data, calculate and distinguish between the accuracy and precision.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to perform mathematical operations involving significant figures and scientific notation.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to define and explain why significant figures are important.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to define, state equations, and plot graphs for directly and indirectly proportional relationships.

 

  

 

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Changing Models of the Atom-Structure

 

The learner will be able to describe the models as they have changed from the time of the Greek philosophers through the model proposed by Niels Bohr.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to explain how scientific evidence has led to the different models of the atom.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to summarize and explain how the observed properties of cathode rays led to the discovery of the electron as a part of all atoms.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to summarize and explain how Rutherford used the results of his gold foil experiment to develop the nuclear model of the atom.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to explain the mathematical relationships among the velocity, wavelength, and frequency of electromagnetic radiation.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to explaining the dual nature of light, bright line spectra and the significance of bright line spectra to how Niels Bohr developed the shell model of the atom.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to explain the significance of the bright line spectrum of hydrogen to Bohr's model of atomic structure.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to describe the properties of protons, neutrons, and electrons.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to define "atomic number" and "mass number" and describe how they apply to the composition of isotopes and nuclides.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to define and distinguish between relative atomic mass and average atomic mass.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to calculate the average atomic mass of an element given the relative abundances of each isotope of the element.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to using the periodic table, draw shell diagrams of atoms to show atomic structure according to Bohr's model.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to define a mole in terms of Avogadro's number; define "molar mass".

 

  

 

The learner will be able to solve problems involving mass, mole and the number of atoms of an element or molecules of a compound.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to experimentally identify an element by flame tests.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to solve problems using the conversion, factor-label method of problem solving.

 

  

 

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Modern Concept of the Atom

 

The learner will be able to explain how Bohr's model was inconsistent with deBroglie's theory of electrons, ionization energies, Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principal, and the bright line spectra of more complex elements.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to explain how different factors affect ionization energy; such as the affect of removing more and more electrons from the same atom, the number of protons, and the ratio of protons to electrons.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to predict how various ionization energies for the same atom will compare by applying the factors that affect ionization energy.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to explain how experimental discoveries led to the changes in Bohr's model of the atom.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to list the four quantum numbers in the modern concept of the atom and describe their significance.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to explain the number of sublevels corresponding to each of the main energy levels, the number of orbitals per sublevel and the number of orbitals per main energy level.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to discuss the significance of the spin quantum number and the Pauli Exclusion Principle.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to use the Aufbau principle, Hund's rule, and the Pauli exclusion principle to represent the arrangement of electrons in atoms using orbital notation, electron configuration and electron dot diagrams.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to use the pattern of electron configuration in the periodic table to draw dot diagrams, and electron configuration of any element.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to explain how the Quantum Mechanical model of the atom solved the inconsistencies of Bohr's model.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to set up an experiment to study the properties of a common gas, oxygen, and compare its properties to its electron configuration.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to apply observational and analysis techniques to determine the combination of four common household substances in ten different mixtures.

 

  

 

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Periodic Table and Periodic Law

 

The learner will be able to explain Mendeleev's role in the development of the Periodic Table.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to describe the trend of properties in the Periodic Table such as: ionization energy, atomic radius, melting points, metallic character, activity of elements, and electron arrangement.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to explain and use the periodic law to predict the physical and chemical properties of elements.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to describe the different section of the modern Periodic Table and explain the significance of each section.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to use the periodic table to determine the valence of elements, and name and write formulas for binary and ternary compounds, including variable valence elements.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to calculate molecular weight and percent composition from formulas of elements.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to use the Periodic Table to predict the stability of compounds from the activity of the elements which make them up.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to set up an experiment to prepare and determine the properties of the common element hydrogen.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to set up an experiment to collect data and calculate the percent of oxygen in the air.

 

  

 

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Chemical Reactions and Equations

 

The learner will be able to list three requirements for a correctly written chemical equation.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to write a word equation and a balanced formula equation for chemical reactions of various types.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to define and give general equations for decomposition and double displacement reactions.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to use a solubility table to predict which products are precipitates and indicate such in the balanced chemical equation.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to observe and predict the products of chemical reactions and write the balanced chemical equations.

 

  

 

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Types of Bonds

 

The learner will be able to define and describe the difference and likenesses of ionic, polar covalent, nonpolar covalent, and metallic bonding.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to classify bonds according to electronegativity differences.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to list the different properties of substances with different types of bonds.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to use the type of bond to predict and explain the properties of substances.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to use electron dot diagrams to represent different types of bonds.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to use the periodic table to predict the type of bond a substance will have.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to describe the differences in the types of particles produced when different bonds are formed.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to set up an experiment to determine the differences in properties of ammonia vs. ammonium ion due to their differences in bonding.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to use VSEPR theory and electron dot diagrams to predict the geometry of molecules.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to use the shape of molecules to predict differences in properties.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to set up an experiment to gather information, which will lead to the determination of the type of bond present in a given substance.

 

  

 

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Kinetic Molecular Theory and Gases

 

The learner will be able to state the kinetic molecular theory of matter and describe how it explains certain properties of matter.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to describe the three states of matter in terms of the kinetic molecular theory.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to define and describe the differences between an ideal gas and a real gas.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to describe in terms of kinetic molecular theory the characteristic properties of gases, expansion, low density, fluidity, compressibility, and diffusion.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to state Graham's Law of Diffusion and be able to use it to calculate relative rates of diffusion for given gases.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to describe the conditions under which a real gas deviates from ideal behavior and explain why.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to state and use the gas laws ( Boyle's Law, Charles' Law, and Gay-Lusssac's Law) to calculate various pressure, volume, and temperature changes of gases.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to carry out experiments and collect data involving the gas laws. Graph the information and explain any inconsistencies.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to describe how to make and use a simple mercury barometer.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to calculate pressure and volume changes and corrections due to gases being collected by water displacement.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to explain the meaning of standard pressure and temperature and why they are defined.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to set up an experiment and collect data to determine the molar volume of a gas.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to explain the significance of and use Avogadro's Law and the Law of Combining Volumes.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to use the ideal gas law equation to calculate volume-temperature-pressure changes.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to discuss the significance of absolute-zero temperature and use the Kelvin scale in calculation.

 

  

 

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Kinetic Molecular Theory

 

The learner will be able to describe the motion of particles in the liquid and solid state according to the kinetic theory and how this relates to the properties of solids and liquids.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to describe and predict the changes of state which occur with various energy changes.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to explain the differences and calculate the amount of energy needed for heat of fusion and heat of vaporization changes.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to explain and predict how vapor pressure is related to the boiling point of a substance.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to explain why water has such exceptional properties in terms of its structure and bonding.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to describe the processes of boiling, freezing, melting, and sublimation in terms of the kinetic molecular theory.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to describe the difference between amorphous and crystalline solids and the seven different crystal systems.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to recognize and draw the seven different crystal systems.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to set up an experiment to demonstrate how crystals can be grown by four different methods and explain the differences using the kinetic molecular theory.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to describe the difference between hydrated, efflorescence, deliquescence and determine each experimentally.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to use crystalline properties to determine the type of bond present and vice versa, use type of bond to predict the properties of a substance.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to determine experimentally the heat of fusion for water and explain how energy is involved in change of state.

 

  

 

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Stoichiometry

 

The learner will be able to recognize the four different types of reactions: composition, decomposition, single replacement, and double displacement.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to predict products and write balanced formula equations to represent the reaction.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to given reactants, write a balanced formula equation to represent the reaction.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to define mole ratio and describe its role in stoichiometry calculations.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to use the conversion factor method to solve mass-mass, mass-mole, mass-volume and volume-volume stoichiometry problems, showing work neatly with units.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to define limiting reagents and calculate limiting reagents in stoichiometery problems.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to calculate stoichiometry problems with non standard conditions.

 

  

 

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Reaction Energy and Reaction Kinetics

 

The learner will be able to explain the differences between heat of reaction, heat of formation, and enthalpy.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to explain the concept of bond energy and its relationship to heat of reaction.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to graph the potential energy versus reaction pathway to represent what happens as a reaction takes place.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to label a graph of potential energy versus reaction pathway with reactants, products, activation energy, and activated complex.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to explain the relationship of enthalpy and entropy to the tendency for a reaction to occur.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to explain the requirements for a reaction to take place.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to use the collision theory to predict whether certain reactions will take place at all, will occur spontaneously, and how fast.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to use experimental information to determine if a reaction is exothermic or endothermic, and whether it has high or low activation energy.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to list and explain, in terms of the collision theory, four methods of increasing the rate of a reaction.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to write balanced thermochemical equations given the reactants and the heat of reaction.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to predict the stability of a substance from its heat of formation and explain why it is stable or unstable.

 

  

 

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Solutions

 

The learner will be able to distinguish between solution, solute, and solvent.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to classify solutions according to the type of solute and solvent present.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to describe the mechanism of dissolving and how it is related to exothermic and endothermic heats of solution.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to gather experimental data and use it to list liquids in order of increasing polarity.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to predict whether substances are soluble using their relative polarities.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to compare and contrast the properties of suspension, colloids, and solutions Use these properties to predict whether a mixture is a suspension, colloid or solution.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to list and explain three factors that influence the rate of dissolving a solid in a liquid.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to explain solution equilibrium and distinguish among saturated, unsaturated, and supersaturated solutions.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to experimentally determine whether a solution is saturated, unsaturated or supersaturated.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to explain and compare the effects of temperature, heat of solution and pressure on solubility of solids and gases in liquids.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to experimentally gather data to establish a solubility curve for a solid dissolving in water.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to explain how solutes affect solvent properties, such as vapor pressure, boiling point, and freezing point.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to define colligative property and how it changes with different amounts of solute.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to define and calculate concentrations using molarity and molality units.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to calculate colligative property changes using molarlity units of concentration.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to describe an experimental method for determining the molar mass using a colligative property.

 

  

 

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Compounds and Ionization

 

The learner will be able to describe the solution process for an ionic compound.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to write equations for dissolving soluble ionic compounds in water.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to describe the solution process for a molecular electrolyte and contrast dissociation and ionization.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to distinguish between strong and weak electrolytes and give examples of each.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to explain how a substance is a strong or weak electrolyte and be able to write equations to represent strong and weak electrolytes.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to explain what is needed in a solution for it to be able to conduct electricity and how this is related to the type of compound dissolved.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to predict whether a solution of a given substance will conduct electricity.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to explain how a solution of ions conducts electricity by chemical reaction and give the equations to represent the reactions which occur at the anode and the cathode.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to gather experimental data to determine whether a substance is a nonelectrolyte, a weak electrolyte, or a strong electrolyte.

 

  

 

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Acids-Bases, Titration, and pH

 

The learner will be able to list and describe five general properties of acids and bases.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to define and give an example of a traditional acid and base.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to explain the difference between a strong and weak acid, and a strong and weak base.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to name and give formulas for common acids and bases.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to list uses of acids and bases and explain what properties make them useful for that purpose.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to be able to write ionization equations for strong and weak acids and bases.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to explain the relationship of the hydrogen ion and the hydronium ion.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to be able to give examples of reaction of acids and bases, represented with balanced equations.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to be able to predict products of reactions involving acids and bases.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to designing a demonstration to illustrate at least two properties of acids or bases. Carry out the demonstration or experiment following safe laboratory procedures.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to define pH and explain the meaning of the pH scale.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to calculate the pH of a solution given its molarity as an acid or base.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to define the ion product constant for water and describe the equilibrium involved.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to calculate the concentration of H+ or OH- given the other concentration State the relationship between the concentration of hydrogen and hydroxide ions in solution.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to define titration and describe how a titration is carried out.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to carry out a titration and the calculations to determine the unknown concentration of an acid or base.

 

  

 

The learner will be able to be able to analyze and explain sources of error in a titration experiment.

 

  

 

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